Denominational Discourse in the Poetry of Prominent Persian Poets (Kasāʾī to Jāmī)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Assistant professor, Farhangian University, Iran

2 Associate professor, Department of Persian language and literature, University of Semnan, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Department of Persian language and literature, University of Semnan, Iran

10.22034/jid.2023.136949.1591

Abstract

Following the demise of Prophet Muhammad (s), disagreements arose among Muslim scholars regarding crucial matters such as the caliphate, and fundamental beliefs including divine attributes, fate (qaḍāʾ) and predestination (qadar), the nature of good and evil, predetermination (jabr), and free will. These disputes gave rise to various sects and denominations within Islam. Consequently, the field of kalām or theology emerged, encompassing diverse theological sects such as the Muʿtazilites, Ashʿarites, Shias, and Ismāʿilis, as well as different jurisprudential schools such as the Shāfiʿiyya, Mālikiyya, Ḥanbaliyya, Ḥanafiyya, and Shiism. These theological disagreements constitute a significant portion of Islamic history over the course of centuries. Prominent Persian poets often aligned themselves with specific theological and jurisprudential schools of thought, which influenced their poetic expressions. They openly expressed their affirmations or rejections of various theological beliefs within their poems, giving rise to what could be called the "denominational discourse" within Persian poetry. To fully grasp the meaning and significance of these poems, it is essential to possess a comprehensive understanding of the beliefs and ideologies they embraced. This article focuses on examining three prominent theological schools present in Islamic civilization: Shiism, Muʿtazilism, and Ashʿarism. Furthermore, we provide a brief overview of the jurisprudential beliefs held by various poets. Subsequently, we present selected samples of poetry composed by renowned poets that reflect their theological perspectives.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Dashti, Ali. 1394 Sh. Qalamruw Saʿdī. Tehran: n.p.
Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar. 1378 Sh. Lughatnāmi. Tehran: University of Tehran.
Fazaee, Yusof. 1363 Sh. Taḥqīq dar tārīkh wa falsafi-yi madhāhib ahl sunnat wa firqi-yi Ismāʿiliyya. Tehran: Ataee.
Ferdowsi, Abul-Qasem. 1387 Sh. Shāhnāmi. Moscow edition. Tehran: Hermes.
Hafiz, Shams al-Din Muhammad. 1364 Sh. Dīwān. Commentaries by Khalīl Khaṭīb Rahbar. Tehran: Safi-Ali Shah.
Homee, Jalaloddin. 1394 Sh. Mawlawīnāmi. Tehran: Homa and Sokhan.
Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad. 1349 AH. Muqaddima. Egypt: al-Maktab al-Tijariyya al-Kubra.
Jafari, Mohammad Taghi. 1387 Sh. Falsafi-yi dīn. Tehran: Research Institute of Islamic Culture and Thought.
Jāmī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān. 1380 Sh. Dīwān Jāmī. Edited by Mohammad Roshan. Tehran: Negah.
Lāhījī, Fayyāḍ. 1383 Sh. Gawhar murād. Tehran: Sayeh.
Mashkour, Mohammad Javad. 1362 Sh. Tārīkh Shīʿa wa firqi-hāyi Islām tā qarn chāhārum. Tehran: Ishraq.
Mashkour, Mohammad Javad. 1387 Sh. Farhang firaq Islāmī. Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi.
Mayel Heravi, Najib. 1377 Sh. Shaykh ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Jāmī. Tehran: Tarh-e Now.
Minavi, Mojtaba. 1383 Sh. Kalīla wa-dimna. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
Mohaghegh, Mahdi. 1370 Sh. Dīwān Nāṣir Khusraw. Tehran: Toos.
Motahhari, Morteza. 1358 Sh. Āshnāyī bā ʿulūm Qurʾānī. Tehran: Sadra.
Niẓāmī, Ilyās. 1344 Sh. Kulliyyāt khamsa Niẓāmī. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
Qazwīnī, ʿAbd al-Jalīl. 1358 Sh. Naqḍ. Edited by Jalaloddin Mohaddes. Tehran: Society for the National Heritage of Iran.
Rabbani Golpayegani, Ali. 1381 Sh. Darāmadī bar ʿilm kalām. Qom: Dar al-Fikr.
Rokni, Mohammad Mahdi. 1377 Sh. Jabr wa ikhtiyār dar Mathnawī. Tehran: Asatir.
Saberi, Hossein. 1390 Sh. Tārīkh firaq Islāmī. Tehran: Samt.
Saʿdi, Muslih al-Din. 1382 Sh. Dīwān kulliyyāt Saʿdī. Edited by Mohammad Ali Forughi. Tehran: Narmak.
Safa, Zabihollah. 1377 Sh. Tārīkh adabiyyāt. Tehran: Jajromi.
Sanāʾī Ghaznawī, Abū l-Majdūd b. Ādam. 1374 Sh. Ḥadīqat al-ḥaqīqa. Edited by Amir Amir Firuzkoohi. Tehran: Zovvar.
Shahristānī, Abū l-Futūḥ Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Karīm. 1361 Sh. Al-Milal wa-l-niḥal. Translated into Persian by Mostafa Hashemi. Tehran: Eghbal.
Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn. 1374 Sh. Tafsīr al-mīzān. Qom: Islamic Publishing Office.
Zamani, Karim. 1386 Sh. Sharḥ jāmiʿ Mathnawī Maʿnawī. Tehran: Ettelaat.
Zarghani, Seyyed Mahdi. 1378 Sh. Ufuq-hāyi shiʿr wa andīshi-yi Sanāyī. Tehran: Roozegar.