A study of the Views of Ibn Jawzi and Ibn Taymiyyah in the Critique of Sufism

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student in Mysticism and Sufism, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Religions and Mysticism, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


Sufism has been widely criticized by jurists since its inception in the Islamic world. Ibn Jawzi and Ibn Taymiyyah are among the most prominent of these jurists. This article explores the views of Ibn Jawzi and Ibn Taymiyyah in the critique of Sufism through a descriptive-analytical method. Ibn Jawzi divided Sufism into two groups: Early Sufism and Late Sufism. He considered the early Sufis to be devoted to the Sharia and classified them as ascetics, but condemned the asceticism, science-avoiding, love, and hearing of the later Sufis. According to Ibn Taymiyyah, Sufism is divided into two groups: Sufis of religious sciences and Sufis of philosophy. He did not consider the Sufis of religious sciences as heretics, but attributed infidelity to the belief of Sufis of philosophy due to being influenced by philosophers, the superiority of Wilayah (guardianship) over Nubuwwah (prophecy), Fana (annihilation), and Wahdat Wojud (the unity of existence). Finally, Ibn Taymiyyah had a positive view of Sufism compared to Ibn Jawzi..


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