Religious Tolerance and Ignorance in Attar's Masnawi

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD Student in Persian Language and Literature, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Lorestan University, Lorestan, Iran

Abstract

Tolerance and ignorance means to bear opposing views and behavior. Mystics, relying on the Quran and traditions, have always sought to create a society in which human beings of all faiths and religions live together in peace and tranquility and love one another. They have tried to save human society from the hardships, prejudices and perversions that lead to hostility and enmity between nations. They also believe that most of the differences between nations are due to false fantasies and illusions about each other and the inaccuracies that superficial people have attributed to other religions, which is itself a sign of not understanding the truth. Examining Attar's Masnawi, this study intends to express his approach to tolerance and ignorance according to the intellectual and religious currents of his era and environment, and to show that Attar did not consider the difference between religions and sects important, but while inviting everyone to avoid bigotry in religion, he called them to peace, friendship, and human virtues. For this purpose, after referring to the lexical and idiomatic meanings of tolerance and ignorance, and examining their foundations in the West and Islam, religious tolerance in terms of the field and realm of Attar's four Masnawis (Mantegh al-Tayr, Mosibat Nameh, Elahi Nameh and Asrar Nameh) is examined, and prominent factors of belief in this important principle from Attar's point of view are rooted

Keywords


The Holy Quran
Afrasiyabpur, Ali Akbar. 2001. Zibayiparasti dar Erfan Islami (Aesthetics in Islamic Mysticism), Tehran: Tahuri. [in Farsi]
Aghajani Ghannad, Mohammad Reza. 2001. Tasahol wa Tasamoh az Didgah Imam Ali (AS) (Tolerance and Ignorance from the Perspective of Imam Ali (AS)), Qom: Radio and Television Islamic Research Center. [in Farsi]
Amin Razawi, Mahdi. 2006. Sahbay Kherad: Sharh Ahwal wa Athar Hakim Omar Khayyam Neyshaburi (Wine of Wisdom: Description of the Life and Works of Hakim Omar Khayyam Neyshaburi), Translated by Majd al-Din Keywani, Tehran: Sokhan. [in Farsi]
Ariyanpur Kashani, Abbas. 1991. Farhang Kamel Englisi (Complete English Dictionary), Tehran: Amirkabir, vol. 5. [in Farsi]
Ashrafzadeh, Reza; Naruyi, Masud. 2016. "Payam-hay Ensansaz Erfan Attar wa Molana bary Bashar Emruz (Humanizing Messages of Attar and Rumi's Mysticism for Human Beings Today)", in: Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, no. 5, pp. 143-161.
Attar Neyshaburi, Farid al-Din. 1995. Diwan Attar, Edited by Taghi Tafazzoli, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural. [in Farsi]
Attar Neyshaburi, Farid al-Din. 1998. Tazkerah al-Awliya, Edited by Mohammad Estelami, Tehran: Pilgrim, Ninth Edition. [in Farsi]
Attar Neyshaburi, Farid al-Din. 2001. Mosibat Nameh (Book of Tragedy), Edited by Abd al-Wahhab Nurani Wesal, Tehran: Pilgrim. [in Farsi]
Attar Neyshaburi, Farid al-Din. 2004. Mantegh al-Tayr (Speech of the Birds), Edited by Mohammad Reza Shafi‘i Kadkani, Tehran: Sokhan. [in Arabic]
Attar Neyshaburi, Farid al-Din. 2007. Asrar Nameh (Book of Secrecy), Edited by Mohammad Reza Shafi‘i Kadkani, Tehran: Sokhan. [in Farsi]
Attar Neyshaburi, Farid al-Din. 2008. Elahi Nameh (Book of Psalm), Edited by Mohammad Reza Shafi‘i Kadkani, Tehran: Sokhan. [in Farsi]
Attar Neyshaburi, Farid al-Din. 2009. Mosibat Nameh (Book of Tragedy), Edited by Mohammad Reza Shafi‘i Kadkani, Tehran: Sokhan. [in Farsi]
Ayati, Mohammad Ibrahim. 1990. Tarikh Payambar Islam (History of the Prophet of Islam), Tehran: University of Tehran. [in Farsi]
Behbahani, Marziyeh. 2008. "Tamthil, Ayineh Ejtema: Seyri dar Tamthil-hay Adabiyat Erfani dar Athar Molana wa Attar (Allegory, Mirror of Society: A Look at the Allegories of Mystical Literature in the Works of Rumi and Attar)", in: Mystical and Mythological Literature, no. 13, pp. 43-76. [in Farsi]
Beyhaghi, Hoseyn Ali. 1995. "Fazay Fekri wa Farhangi Asr Attar (Intellectual and Cultural Atmosphere of Attar Era)", in: Journal of the Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, yr. 28, no. 1-2, pp. 95-112. [in Farsi]
Dawari Ardakani, Reza. 1997. "Tasahol wa Tasamoh Dini, Poyayi wa Balandegi ya Elteghat wa Enheraf: Goftoguy Keyhan ba Nematollah Bawand, Hojjat al-Islam Mohsen Gharawiyan, Reza Dawari, Mohsen Kadiwar & Mohammad Taghi Fazel Meybodi (Religious Tolerance and Ignorance, Dynamics and Prosperity or Eclecticism and Deviation: The Conversation of the Cultural Keyhan with Nematollah Bawand, Hojjat al-Islam Mohsen Gharwiyan, Reza Dawari, Mohsen Kadiwar and Mohammad Taghi Fazel Meybodi)", in: Cultural Keyhan, no. 135, pp. 4-11. [in Farsi]
Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar. 1964. Loghatnameh (Dictionary), Supervised by Mohammad Moin, Serial no. 102, Letter no "T": 7, Tehran: University of Tehran. Tehran: University of Tehran. [in Farsi]
Fallah, Morteza. 2008. "Rawadari, Gozasht wa Bordbari dar Mathnawi Molawi (Tolerance, Forgiveness and Patience in Rumi's Masnawi)", in: Journal of the Faculty of Humanities, Semnan University, yr. 7, no. 25, pp. 91-112. [in Farsi]
Farzanehfar, Hoseyn. 2004. "Tasahol wa Modara dar Andisheh-hay Siyasi Islam (Tolerance and Ignorance in Islamic Political Thoughts)", in: Islamic Studies, no. 64, pp. 155-186. [in Farsi]
Farzanehfar, Hoseyn. 2007. Tasahol wa Modara dar Andisheh Siyasi Islam (Tolerance and Ignorance in Islamic Political Thought), Tehran: Sanam. [in Farsi]
Fath Ali, Mahmud. 1999. Tazeh-hay Andisheh Tasahol wa Tasamoh Akhlaghi, Dini , Siyasi (Latest News of the Idea of Moral, Religious, Political Tolerance and Ignorance), Qom: Taha. [in Farsi]
Fazeli, Ghader. 1995. Andisheh Attar (Attar's Thought), Tehran: Talaiyeh. [in Farsi]
Foruzanfar, Badi al-Zaman. 2010. Sharh Ahwal wa Naghd wa Tahlil Athar Sheikh Farid al-Din Mohammad Attar Neyshaburi (Biography and Critique of the Works of Sheikh Farid al-Din Mohammad Attar Neyshaburi), Tehran: Pligrims. [in Arabic]
Ghani, Ghasem. 1990. Bahth dar Athar wa Afkar wa Ahwal Hafez (A Review of Hafez's Works, Thoughts and Biography), Tehran: Pilgrims, vol. 2. [in Farsi]
Ghazi Shakib, Nematollah. 1971. Be Suy Simorgh (Towards Simorgh), Tehran: Victorious. [in Farsi]
Ghobadi, Hoseyn Ali; et al. 2011. "Payam-hay Jahani Attar baray Moshkelat Fekri Ensan Moaser (Attar's Universal Messages for the Intellectual Problems of Contemporary Man)", in: Educational Literature, no. 11, pp. 87-110. [in Farsi]
Ghorbani, Ahad. 2008. Negahi Shetabzadeh be Rawadari dar Farhang wa Adab Iran (A Quick Look at Tolerance in Iranian Culture and Literature), First Part, Gutenberg: Maze Publishing. [in Farsi]
Ibn Babewayh, Mohammad ibn Ali. 2006. Man la Yahzoroh al-Faghih (The One Who Doesn’t Have Access to a Jurist), Translated by Mohammad Jawad Ghaffari, Tehran: Islamic Books House, vol. 1. [in Arabic]
Islami, Mohammad Taghi. 2002. Tasahol wa Tasamoh (Tolerance and Ignorance), Qom: Seminary Cultural Studies and Research Center. [in Farsi]
Julie Saada, Gendron. 2003. Tasahol dar Andisheh Gharb (Tolerance in Western Thought), Translated by Abbas Bagheri, Tehran: Ney. [in Farsi]
Karimi Zanjani Asl, Mohammad. 2008. "Daramadi bar Ensandusti wa Rawadari Piran Irani dar Tazkerah al-Awliya Attar (An Introduction to Humanitarianism and Tolerance of Iranian Elders in Attar's Tazkerat al-Awliya)", in: Political-Economic Information, no. 249 & 250, pp. 98-105. [in Farsi]
Khaghani Sherwani, Afzal al-Din Badil. 2003. Diwan Khaghani, Edited by Ziya al-Din Sajjadi, Tehran: Zowwar. [in Farsi]
Khanmohammadi, Ali Akbar. 2011. "Rawadari Mazhabi dar Sher Molana, Attar wa Sadi (Religious Tolerance in the Poetry of Rumi, Attar and Saadi)", in: Hafez, no. 85, pp. 17-22. [in Farsi]
Khosropanah, Abd al-Hoseyn. 2002. Kalam Jadid (New Theology), Qom: Seminary Cultural Studies and Research Center, Second Edition. [in Farsi]
Locke, John. 1998. Nameh-yi dar Bab Tasahol (A Letter Concerning Toleration), Translated by Shirzad Golshahi Karim, Tehran: Ney. [in Farsi]
Majlesi, Mohammad Bagher. 1983. Behar al-Anwar (Oceans of Lights), Beirut: Al-Athar Institute, vol. 67. [in Arabic]
Masud, Jobran. 1997. Farhang Alefbayi Arabi Farsi al-Raed (Al-Raed: Arabic-Persian Alphabetic Dictionary), Mashhad: Astan Qods Razawi, vol. 1.
Masumi Zare, Hadi; Shaban-niya, Ghasem. 2011. "Barresi wa Naghd Mabani Nazariyeh Tasahol John Locke (A Review and Critique of the Foundations of John Locke's Theory of Tolerance)", in: Political Knowledge, yr. 3, no. 1, pp. 135-161. [in Farsi]
Mesbah Yazdi, Mohammad Taghi. 2000. Nazariyeh Siyasi Eslam (Political Theory of Islam), Qom: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute, vol. 2. [in Farsi]
Modabberi, Mahmud. 1991. Sharh Ahwal wa Ashar Shaeran bi Diwan dar Gharn-hay 3-4-5 Hejri Ghamari (Description of the Life and Poems of Bookless Poets in the 3-4-5th Centuries AH), Tehran: Panus. [in Farsi]
Moin, Mohammad. 1983. Farhang Moin (Moin Dictionary), Tehran: Amirkabir, vol. 1. [in Farsi]
Naser Khosro. 1969. Diwan Naser Khosro, Edited by Seyyed Nasrollah Taghawi, Tehran: Amirkabir. [in Farsi]
Nezami, Elyas ibn Yusof. 1984. Makhzan al-Asrar (Repository of Secrets), Edited & Annotated by Hasan Wahid Dastgerdi, Tehran: Scientific. [in Arabic]
Nikdar Asl, Mohammad Hoseyn. 2009. "Tasahol wa Tasamoh dar Diwan Hafez (Tolerance and Ignorance in Hafez's Divan)", in: Shiraz Literature Park, yr. 1, no. 2, pp. 197-206. [in Farsi]
Ovald, François. 1999. Tasamoh az Dirbaz ta Emruz (Tolerance from Long Ago to Today), Translated by Maziyar Mohaymeni & Mohammad Reza Sheikhi Mohammadi, Tehran: Thaleth. [in Farsi]
Purjawadi, Nasrollah. 1979. Sultan Tarighat (Sultan of the Way), Tehran: Conscience. [in Farsi]
Ritter, Hellmut. 2009. Daryay Jan: Seyri dar Ara wa Ahwal Sheikh Farid al-Din Attar Neyshaburi (The Ocean of the Soul: A look at the Views and Biography of Sheikh Farid al-Din Attar Neyshaburi), Translated by Abbas Zaryab Khoyi & Mehr Afagh Baybordi, Tehran: International Huda, vol. 1. [in Farsi]
Safa, Zabihollah. 2012. Tarikh Adabiyat dar Iran (History of Literature in Iran), Tehran: Ferdos, Eighteenth Edition, vol. 2. [in Farsi]
Shamisa, Sirus. 1994. Seyr Ghazal dar Sher Farsi (Development of Lyric Poetry in Persian), Tehran: Ferdos. [in Farsi]
Thomas, Henry. 2007. Bozorgan Falsafeh (Biographical Encyclopedia of Philosophy), Translated by Fereydun Badrehyi, Tehran: Scientific & Cultural. [in Farsi]
Wensinck, A. J. 1976. Al-Mojam al-Mofahras le Alfaz al-Hadith al-Nabawi (Alphabetical Dictionary for the Words of the Prophet), Leiden: Braille Press. [in Arabic]
Yathrebi, Seyyed Yahya. 1995. Falsafeh Erfan (Philosophy of Mysticism), Tehran: Islamic Propaganda Office, Second Edition. [in Farsi]
Zarrinkub, Abd al-Hoseyn. 1999. Seday Bal Simorgh: Darbareh Zendegi wa Andisheh Attar (Simorgh Wing Voice: About Attar's Life and Thought), Tehran: Sokhan. [in Farsi]
Zekrgu, Amir Hoseyn. 1998. Asrar Asatir Hend (Secrets of Indian Mythology), Tehran: Thought of Day, First Edition. [in Farsi]