Knowledge-enhancing Sources in Mystical Education

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor in New Theology (Religions and Mysticism), University of Religions and Denominations, Qom, Iran

2 PhD Student in Sufism and Islamic Mysticism, University of Religions and Denominations, Qom, Iran


Knowledge has three characteristics: honest, justified, and believable. Achieving these features depends on supporting resources; for example, in mysticism, the heart and intuition support mystical revelations and make them believable for the revealer and witness. It seems that the uniqueness of the support of knowledge obtained from mystical revelations depends on the two sources of the heart and intuition, which benefit the people of revelation, while Islamic mysticism has capacities from which mystical education can be extracted for all classes. The diversity of mystical education audiences with different talents and abilities requires a variety of sources to support education propositions. These propositions are the same fundamental infrastructures that are extracted from ontology, cosmology, and anthropology of theoretical mysticism under the title of "Fundamentals of Mystical Education". This article, while briefly introducing mystical education and emphasizing the role of the heart and intuition, suggests reason, revelation, sensory perception, memory, and introspection for supporting the propositions of mystical education. Epistemology in mystical education is independent of different definitions in terms of ontology and narration, and therefore considers knowledge to be possible and to have elements and value.


Main Subjects

The Holy Quran
Nahj al-Balaghah. 1994. Researched by Sobhi Saleh, Qom: Hejrat, First Edition. [in Arabic]
Audi, Robert. 2015. Marefatshenasi (Epistemology), Translated by Ali Akbar Ahmadi, Tehran: Research Institute of Islamic Culture and Thought, Second Edition. [in Farsi]
Dargahzadeh, Mohammad. 2012. "Tabyin Falsafi Wahy az Didgah Ibn Sina (Philosophical Explanation of Revelation from Avicenna's Point of View)", in: Theological Knowledge, yr.3, no.1, pp. 27-46.
Gheysari, Dawud. 1996. Sharh Fosus al-Hekam, Foreworded by Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani, Tehran: Scientific & Cultural, First Edition. [in Arabic]
Gilson, Etienne. 1982. Naghd Tafakkor Falsafi Gharb az Ghorun Wosta ta Awakher Gharn Hazer (Criticism of Western Philosophical Thought from the Middle Ages to the End of the Present Century), Translated by Ahmad Ahmadi, Tehran: Wisdom, Third Edition. [in Farsi]
Hekmat, Nasrollah. 2012. "Nazariyeh Taghlid az Khoda dar Marefatshenasi Ibn Arabi (The Theory of Imitation of God in Ibn Arabi's Epistemology)", in: Ontological Researches, yr. 1, no. 1, pp. 57-70. [in Farsi]
Hojjat, Minu. 2003. "Jahan-taswir: Barresi Ejmali Sakhtar Manabe Marefat az Didgah Wittgenstein (World-Image: An Overview of the Structure of Knowledge Sources from Wittgenstein's Point of View)", in: Mofid Letter, no. 36, pp. 71-94. [in Farsi]
Ibn Arabi, Mohyi al-Din. 1946. Fosus al-Hekam, Prepared by Abu al-Ala Afifi, Cairo: [in Arabic]
Ibn Arabi, Mohyi al-Din. n.d. Al-Fotuhat al-Makkiyah, Researched by Ahmad Shams al-Din, Beirut: Scientific Books House, vol. 3. [in Arabic]
Ibn Babewayh (Sadugh), Mohammad ibn Ali. 2019. Al-Tawhid (Monotheism), Edited by Hashem Hoseyni, Qom: Qom Seminary Teachers Association, First Edition. [in Arabic]
Ibn Sina, Hosayn ibn Abdollah. 1983. Al-Esharat wa al-Tanbihat ba Sharh Tusi (Signs and Notes with the Explanation of Khajeh Tusi), Researched by Hasan Hasanzadeh Amoli, Qom: Islamic Propagation Office, vol. 3. [in Arabic]
Jawan Arasteh, Hoseyn. 2001. Darsnameh Olum Qurani (Textbook of Quranic Sciences), Qom: Book Garden, Sixth Edition. [in Farsi]
Najafi, Farideh. 2013. "Motaleat wa Barresi Marefatshenasi Dini wa Asibshenasi An (Studies and Investigation of Religious Epistemology and Its Pathology)", in: Humanities Research, yr. 5, no. 27, pp. 172-198. [in Farsi]
Ramezani, Reza. 2002. "Marefatshenasi Erfani (Mystical Epistemology)", in: Ghabasat, yr. 7, no. 24, pp. 15-39. [in Farsi]
Roshdi, Shirin; et al. 2017. "Tabyin Didgah Marefatshenasi Allameh Tabatayi wa Delalat-hay An dar Mohtawa wa Rawesh-hay Tarbiyati (Explanation of the Epistemological View of Allameh Tabatabayi and Its Implications in Content and Educational Methods)", in: Research in Islamic Education Issues, yr. 25, no. 34, pp. 9-27. [in Farsi]
Sadr al-Din Shirazi, Mohammad ibn Ibrahim. 1981. Al-Hekmah al-Motealiyah fi al-Asfar al-Aghliyah al-Arbaah (The Transcendent Wisdom in the Four Intellectual Journeys), Annotated by Mohammad Hosayn Tabatabayi, Beirut: Arab Heritage Revival House, Third Edition, vol. 2. [in Arabic]
Sadr al-Din Shirazi, Mohammad ibn Ibrahim. 2001. Al-Mabda wa al-Maad (Origin and Resurrection), Researched by Seyyed Jalal al-Din Ashtiyani, Qom: Islamic Propaganda Office. [in Arabic]
Seyyed Fatemi, Seyyedeh Zohreh. 2018. Mabani wa Osul Tarbiyat Erfani, Erfan Islami (Basics and Principles of Mystical Education, Islamic Mysticism), PhD Thesis in Sufism and Islamic Mysticism, Supervisor: Hadi Wakili & Reza Elahimanesh, Qom: University of Religions & Denominations. [in Farsi]
Shams, Mansur. 2008. Ashnayi ba Marefatshenasi (An Introduction to Epistemology), Tehran: New Design, Second Edition. [in Farsi]
Tabatabayi, Mohammad Hosayn. 2008. Majmueh Rasael Allameh Tabatabayi (Collection of Allameh Tabatabayi's Treatises), Qom: Book Garden, vol. 1 & 2.
Yazdanpanah, Seyyed Yadollah. 2012. Mabani wa Osul Erfan Nazari (Basics and Principles of Theoretical Mysticism), Qom: Imam Khomeini Education and Research Institute, Third Edition. [in Farsi]