عنوان مقاله [English]
Takfeer (Excommunication) is a phenomenon with which the Muslim world has been preoccupied since the era of Imām Ali and the event of Hakamiyyat. It is also utilized today as an instrument by some Salafis, called Takfeeris, who take a pride in slaughtering the Muslim, documenting it as legal through the theories of their early scholars. Rashid Rida, one of the contemporary Salafi theorists, has well surveyed various aspects of Takfeer, being deeply influenced by the positions of Ibn Taymyyah. This article seeks to explore the conditions of Takfeer from the viewpoint of Rashid Rida, who believes there must be distinguition amongst general conditions of Takfeer, excommunication of a definite person and the implementation of Takfeer laws. He defines the general condition of Takfeer as denial of one of the principles of religion but maintains Jahl (Ignorance) and Ta,weel (Interpretation) as two of the barriers on the way of excommunicating a definite person.